Integrating Internal Displacement in Peace Processes and Peace Agreements

Peace Agreement Matrix: Comparative Uses of Guiding Principles

This Matrix is designed to give a comparative, country-by-country breakdown of various peace agreements and their applicability to, and incorporated use of, The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. It includes information such as the number of IDPs present at the signing of each peace agreement, the dates of those signings, and commentary notes regarding these agreements.

Peace Agreement Matrix: Comparative Uses of Guiding Principles (PDF)

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Country # of IDPS at signing Peace Agreement  Notes
Afghanistan 15,000 Islamabad Accord "All public and private buildings, residential areas and properties occupied by different armed groups during the hostilities shall be returned to their original owners. Effective steps shall be taken to facilities the return of displaced persons to their respective homes and locations."
Angola 458,694 Lukasa Protocol Only mention is the resettlement of displaced persons.
Bosnia  1,282,600 Washington Agreement "All refugees and displaced persons have the right freely to return to their homes of origin."
Bosnia 1,097,800 Dayton Agreement (The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina)  
Burundi 56,000 Arusha Peace and Reconciliation Agreement for Burundi Protocol 4 (Art. 1) designates the term "sinistres" to apply to displaced who are not refugees. Article 5b mentions the internally displaced specifically, but not using the term IDP.
Burundi 100,000 Dar Es Salaam Agreement for the Attainment of Lasting Peace, Security and Stability in Burundi Uses terms refugee and uses 'displaced' to refer to those other than refugees. Also mentions 'regrouped' persons. 
Cambodia see comment Agreement on a Comprehensive Political Settlement of the Cambodia Conflict "The Paris Agreement" "repatriation of refugees and other displaced persons"
Central African Republic 197,000 Syrte Agreement The only mention is Article 3.3 which calls for the "Création de conditions de retour, de réinstallation et de réinsertion des personnes déplacées à cause du conflit"
Chad   SEVERAL AGREEMENTS LISTED, but no text on UCDP or USIP or Peacemaker. (See comment)  
Congo see comment Accord de Cessez-le-Feu et de Cessation des Hostilités Only mentions the responsibility to return the displaced in Annex 1, article 4.2 and in Article 5c. 
Cote D'Ivoire 709,048 Ouagadougou Peace Agreement The free movement of people and goods is mentioned in both the preamble and Article 6, but the displaced are only addressed in 6.5 in terms of their return: "Aid to the return of war displaced persons"
Croatia 144,147 Agreement on Normalization of Relations between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Croatia  
Croatia 198,500 The Erdut Agreement (Basic Agreement on the Region of Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium)   
Dem. Republic of Congo 2,329,000 Inter-Congolese Political Negotiations - The Final Act Section 22, under "Stating…" recognizes presence of 3 million "internally displaced people (p. 59) who deserve "legal security" ("Agree" p. 60) in Art. 1. Art. 2 mentions return and repatriation but only for refugees. Under 22 "Recommends" a program to deal with this humanitarian issue, mentioning displaced. Several Rights are recognized as well in 22 (Considering p. 59). 
Djibouti see comment Accord Cadre de Reforme et de Concorde Civile Article 1 recognizes displaced as distinct from refugees. It also covers conditions for return and reparations for property and land.
Djibouti see comment Accord de reforme et concorde civile Several mentions of "victimes civiles" which presumably but not explicitly includes IDPs. The only direct mention is Article 8b, which deals with return and property: "toutes les mesures appropriées visant à la réhabilitation des réfugiés et des déplacés, à l’indemnisation des particuliers dont les biens ont été détruits durant le conflit et à la reconstruction des infrastructures publiques."
El Salvador see comment Agreement on Human Rights "Displaced persons and returnees shall be provided with the identity documents required by law and shall be guaranteed freedom of movement. They shall also be guaranteed the freedom to carry on their economic activities and to exercise their political and social rights within the framework of the country's institutions."
Eritrea- Ethiopia 500,000 in Eritrea (Sep 00) and 349,837 in Ethiopia (early 5000) Agreement between the Government of the State of Eritrea and the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Very little mention. Only one, in the preamble: "work closely with the international community to mobilize resources for the resettlement of displaced persons" 
Georgia (Abkhazia) 280,000 Declaration on measures for a political settlement of the Georgian/Abkhaz conflict  
Georgia (Abkhazia) 278,533 Istanbul Statement of the Georgian and Abkhaz Sides on Confidence-Building Measures This was an agreement to improve on the performance of previous agreements. It mentions (p. 2 section b) that measures will be taken for the return of refugees and displaced persons and their safety, though does not specify. 
Guatemala 11,500 Agreement on a Firm and Lasting Peace (Includes the Agreement on the Resettlement of Population Groups Uprooted by the Armed Conflict, and the Comprehensive Agreement on Human Rights) "Population groups uprooted by the armed conflict have the right to reside and live freely in Guatemalan territory." Also refers to previous agreement on the resettlement of uprooted groups.
Kosovo see comment Interim Agreement for Peace and Self-Government in Kosovo Ch. 1 Articles VI bestows standard International Human Rights on all citizens, but does not explicitly state displaced.
Kosovo see comment Kosovo Peace Plan  
Liberia see comment Cotonou Peace Agreement  
Liberia 531,616 Comprehensive Peace Agreement Between the Government of Liberia and the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) and the Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) and Political Parties Uses term "Internally Displaced Persons".
Macedonia 74,000 The Ohrid Agreement The agreement has a provision in Annex C for the return of refugees and displaced persons. This is the only mention in the document.
Mali (Azawad) see comment Pacte National Clauses 7A, 9, 11, 44, 54, 55, 61, 68, 69, 70, 74
Mozambique see comment The Acordo Geral de Paz (AGP)  
Nepal 100,000 Comprehensive Peace Agreement 5.2.4 creates a commission to provide relief and rehabilitation to the displaced (too vague, could include GP 18, 19, 23, 25, 28, or 29). Clause 7 gives general human rights to all, but does not specify the displaced.  
Niger see comment Ouagadougou Accord "Refugee populations"  ARTICLE 10 : Le Gouvernement de la République du Niger prendra, en relation avec la C. R. A. et avec l’aide des pays frères et amis ainsi que des organisations internationales, les dispositions qui permettront le retour librement consenti et la réinsertion des populations réfugiées.
Niger see comment Accord e´tablissant une paix définitive entre le gouvernement de la republique du Niger et lórganisation de la résistance armée Articles 19, 20
Philippines 135,000 Agreement on Peace between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front Use both the terms "evacuees" and "displaced" and calls for the observance on international human rights and laws for their protection (B.1). This is too vague to match up to specific principles.
Rwanda see comment Arusha Accords (Includes Protocol on the Repatriation of Refugees and the Resettlement of Displaced Persons)  
Sierra Leone 700,000 Lomé Peace Agreement (Peace agreement between the government of Sierra Leone and the Revolutionary United Front of Sierra Leone) This agreement makes specific mention of "refugees and displaced" in sections VI.2, XXII, and XXIII. However, later clauses which give rights specified in the GPs (XXIV- XXVIII) are not specifically bestowed on the displaced. Provisions for humanitarian aid are also not specific to displaced populations. Should be more specific. 
Sierra Leone 800,000 Abuja Ceasefire Agreement Only one mention of the displaced (5), parties commit: "to ensure free movement of persons and goods, unimpeded movement of humanitarian agencies, and of refugees and displaced persons."
Somalia see comment Nairobi Declaration on National Reconciliation (More a factual report than a Peace agreement) Article 56: "provision of assistance to meet relief needs, resettle refugees and internally displaced persons" and Article 62: "to make it possible to develop a comprehensive programme of assistance for resettling internally displaced persons."
Sudan see comment Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement This agreement uses and defines the term IDP. However, aside from several mentions of the fact that they will be assisted in their voluntary return, all other rights mentioned in the agreement are universal and not explicitly bestowed on the displaced.
Sudan see comment Cairo Agreement (Agreement between the GoS and the NDA) Uses term IDP, but there is only one mention regarding the formation of a commissin toresolve "issues pertaining to IDPs and refugees as per the peace agreement." Otherwise, there are vague references to the parties' commitments to international human rights laws, very vague. 
Sudan see comment Sudan Comprehensive Peace Agreement Term IDP is used, mostly in the context of return. Again several human rights are spelled out but are granted universally and not just to IDPs. The Refugee convention is mentioned but not the GPs (Ch. 2, Art 1.6).
Sudan see comment Darfur Peace Agreement This is clearly the most explicit and comprehensive of all the peace agreements in terms of IDP rights. This agreement uses and defines the term IDP. It also clarifies that displaced refers to both refugee and IDP. Articles 21 and 26 cover IDPs.  Clause 102 has a reference to International HR laws, but does not mention the GPs.
Tajikistan 16,700 General Agreement on the Establishment of Peace and National Accord in Tajikistan (incl. respective protocols such as Refugee Protocol)  
Uganda 1,235,992 Agreement on Comprehensive Solutions between the Government of the Republic of Uganda and Lord’s Resistance Army/Movement Uses and defines the term IDP.