Integrating Internal Displacement in Peace Processes and Peace Agreements


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Durable solutions: A term given to solutions to internal displacement that are based on three elements: long-term safety and security, restitution of or compensation for lost property and an environment that sustains the life of the former IDPs under normal economic and social conditions.

Three types of durable solutions to internal displacement exist: return to the place of origin, local integration in the areas in which IDPs initially take refuge or settlement in another part of the country.

Source: The Brookings Institution – University Of Bern Project On Internal Displacement. When Displacement Ends: A Framework for Durable Solutions (June 2007)

Internally Displaced Person (IDP): Internally displaced persons are persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State border.

Source: The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement 1998

Refugee: The term refugee shall apply to any person who:
Owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.

Source: The Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (1951) and the Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (1967). The definition provided here is the ‘general’, short-form definition provided in the Convention and Protocol.

Definitions of “refugee” used in regional agreements or declarations include:
[inter alia] persons fleeing, “events seriously disturbing public order in either part or the whole of the country of origin or nationality.”

Source: Organization of African Unity Convention Governing Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa (1969), Article 1(2)

“persons who have fled their country because their lives, safety or freedom have been threatened by generalized violence, foreign aggression, internal conflicts, massive violations of human rights or other circumstances which have seriously disturbed public order.”

Source: Cartagena Declaration on Refugees (1984), Article III(3).