Integrating Internal Displacement in Peace Processes and Peace Agreements

General Resources


Beyond Intractability

Brookings-Bern Project on Internal Displacement

CODHES (various). Periodic data and information.

Conciliation Resources

Forced Migration Online

Forced Migration Review

Global Database on the Guiding Principles (Brookings Institute & Georgetown University)

GP10: Ten Years of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement

IRIN (United Nations' Humanitarian News and Analysis), on Refugees and IDPs

Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre for “Country Profiles” & “MAP of Countries with IDPs”

International Council on Human Rights Policy

International Crisis Group: Peace & Justice

Mediation Support Unit at the United Nations

Peace Mediation Course (facilitated by the Center for Security Studies and Swisspeace)

Public International Law Policy Group

Representative of the Secretary-General on the human rights of internally displaced persons

Swisspeace Foundation (mediation support)

The Conflict Resolution Information Source

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

United Nations Peacemaker

United States Institute of Peace

Uppsala Conflict Data Program

U.S. Agency for International Development

Reports & Papers

"A Case of Undue Pressure: International Mediation in African Civil Wars," Laurie Nathan: Centre for Conflict Resolution, 5 November 1998. This paper focuses on the mediator's strategy and tactics as variables that enhance or diminish the prospect of success. I argue that state and inter-governmental mediators frequently deviate from the logic of mediation and resort instead to power-based diplomacy.

"A Guide to Mediation, Enabling Peace Processes in Violent Conflicts," Hugo Slim: Geneva Center for Humanitarian Dialogue, August 2007. This booklet describes the main aspects of a peace process and offers certain standards of good practice in the mediation and support of a peace process. It is offered as a possible resource for other third party mediators, peace process specialists, diplomats and technical advisers from interested states, multi-lateral organisations and non-governmental organisations who seek to lead, or constructively support, a mediated peace process.

Background to the Guiding Principles, by the Representative of the Secretary-General on the human rights of internally displaced persons. This brief overview summarizes the basic context within which the Guiding Principles were created.

Compilation and Analysis of Legal Norms, Report of the Representative of the Secretary-General, Mr. Francis M. Deng, submitted pursuant to Commission on Human Rights resolution 1995/57 (E/CN.4/1996/52/Add.2), 1995. This compilation and analysis of legal norms relevant to internally displaced persons aims at restating obligations within the framework of existing norms as well as identifying areas where existing international law does not respond adequately to the protection and assistance needs of internally displaced persons. While this report should sharpen awareness of the legal problems faced by internally displaced persons, its conclusions will show that there is still a need to proceed further and to elaborate an appropriate international instrument: existing international law as applied to internally displaced persons consists of a highly complex web of norms originating from a variety of legal sources which makes its application in specific situations of internal displacement difficult unless it is restated in a concise form.

Compilation and Analysis of Legal Norms, Part II: Legal Aspects Relating to the Protection against Arbitrary Displacement, Report of the Representative of the Secretary-General Mr. Francis Deng, submitted pursuant to Commission on Human Rights resolution 1997/39 (E/CN.4/1998/53/Add.1), 1998. This Compilation and Analysis focuses on the guarantees relevant to internally displaced persons, i.e. for the situation of such persons during displacement and return. It also notes that it is necessary to discuss the legal norms relevant to the protection from displacement and to a right not to be displaced, in order to achieve comprehensiveness in the elaboration of the legal framework that relates to displacement.

"Democracy and Deep-Rooted Conflict: Options for Negotiators," Peter Harris and Ben Reilly: International IDEA, 1998. This handbook attempts to meet the need of practical advice for policy-makers on how to design and implement democratic levers that can make peace endure, specifically by providing negotiators and policy-makers with detailed information on options for building democracy in post-conflict societies.

Examples from UN Agencies and Partner Organizations of Field-based Initiatives Supporting Internally Displaced Persons (Inter-Agency Standing Committee, 1999). The intent of this compilation is to provide field practitioners with examples of interventions on behalf of the internally displaced from a variety of country contexts.

Guide to International Human Rights Mechanisms for Internally Displaced Persons and their Advocates, by David Fisher (Brookings-Bern Project on Internal Displacement, 2006). This step-by-step reference guide for internally displaced persons and those acting on their behalf sets out in accessible format the legal rights that internally displaced persons enjoy, as well as the international mechanisms that have been established to protect these rights.

Handbook for Applying the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement (The Brookings-Bern Project on Internal Displacement, 1999). This handbook was prepared to provide practical guidance to field staff on how to implement the Guiding Principles. It explains the Guiding Principles, beginning with general principles and then identifying which principles apply to specific needs that arise in the field.

Handbook for the Protection of IDPs (Protection Cluster Working Group, 2007). This provisional edition of the Handbook is the result of joint efforts by the staff of over 30 international organizations, most of which are members of the Global Protection Cluster. This includes United Nations agencies, non-governmental organizations and intergovernmental organizations. The handbook provides operational guidance and tools to support effective protection responses in situations of internal displacement.

Handbook on Procedures and Criteria for Determining Refugee Status under the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees This Handbook, developed by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, is meant for the guidance of government officials concerned with the determination of refugee status in the various Contracting States. It is hoped that it will also be of interest and use to those concerned with refugee protections.

"Mediating International Crises," Jonathan Wilkenfeld, Kathleen Young, Victor Asal, David Quinn: JOURNAL OF CONFLICT RESOLUTION, Vol. 47 No. 3, June 2003.This study focuses on mediation as a means for mitigating or at least minimizing the potentially turbulent and violent consequences of international crises. Two main research questions are explored: (1) Does mediation in general affect the dynamics and outcomes of crisis negotiations? and (2) Does the impact of mediation vary in accordance with mediator style?

"Peace by Piece: Addressing Sudan’s Conflicts," eds. Mark Simmons & Peter Dixon: Conciliation Resources, Accord, Issue #18, 2006. This issue of Accord examines some of the root causes of conflict in the Sudan, describes aspects of recent peace processes, and asks what remains to be done to build a comprehensive peace.

"The Mediator’s Perspective: An Interview with General Lazaro Sumbeiywo." General Sumbeiywo served as Kenya’s Special Envoy to the IGAD-led Sudanese peace process (1997-98) and then as mediator (2001-05). From 2000 he served as Chief of Staff of the Kenyan army before retiring in February 2003 and devoting himself full-time to completing the peace process.

"The Structuralist Dilemma in Negotiation," William Zartman: Research Group in International Security, January 1997. The dominant school (including the author of this work) has long maintained that power symmetry is the condition most propitious for mutually satisfying negotiations and efficient attainment of optimal results; if asymmetry favors the more powerful, it indisposes the less powerful and delays joint agreement. An opposing argument that, to the contrary, it is asymmetry that is productive of faster, better agreements has rarely been made and the reasoning behind it is not intuitively obvious. This question is examined here, with some surprising results.

When Displacement Ends: A Framework for Durable Solutions (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, June 2007).The United Nations and other international humanitarian agencies, as well as governments, donors, regional organizations and civil society around the world, have long been interested in receiving advice on “when displacement ends.” Specifically, they wanted to know when protection and assistance activities for IDPs would no longer be considered necessary as the IDPs could be said to enjoy access to protection and assistance on a par with the rest of the population. This report attempts to address this important request.


IRIN’s Radio and TV Services.

UNICEF Television News Packages.